In 1915, the Socialist Party was founded as the political section of this union and this party became the first party that demanded woman suffrage. This party expanded their power in the 1920s when the right to vote for women was argued actively. In the 1930s the party was able to push forward the suffrage movement from its position as one of the ruling parties in the coalition government.
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The government started a new industrialization policy and national economic growth increased rapidly. It was a time of rapid economic growth in the 1950s when the advance of industrialization caused rapid urbanization in Puerto Rico. After the 1960s, urban housing, car society and consumer society appeared. Women were being educated more highly, women’s opportunities for economic independence were increasing, and they started to work as professionals and also started to work in the political area. This transformation of female roles in the society converted the women’s identity from being associated only with the home to being a producer.
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For example, the Department of Labor and Human Resources of Puerto Rico pointed out that women didn’t work at the appropriate sexy puerto ricans jobs according to their education level. The average of men’s education years was 12.5 and women’s was 13.3 in 1995.
The real issue of American control of the Puerto Rican women looks more at forms of birth control and sterilization. Stycos reports in “Female Sterilization in Puerto Rico” that a good many doctors were already aware of the “problems of population”. He cites the efforts of Dr. Jose Belavel, head of the Pre-Maternal Health program to interest many physicians in the “pressing need for sterilization and birth control”. The plan then, involves the entire population of Puerto Rican women of child-bearing age in its scope, and the primary method of birth control?
These stark stories from the Los Angeles County U.S.C. Medical Center are haunting, especially the story of Levina Hernandez who did not find out that she had been sterilized until years after her son was born. At the heart of the case was the question of whether women were coerced into being sterilized and if so, if latinas were targeted. At the end of the trial in 1978, the judge ruled that neither of the charges were true, citing “misunderstandings’ due to the fact the women primarily spoke Spanish. The judge blamed their distress from the procedure on “cultural background” that made these women believe that their worth was in their ability to have children. Another cause of the decision was that voluntary informed consent was not a legal requirement until 1974, after the case was decided. At the time of the procedures, there were no serious legal objections to asking women to consent to an irreversible procedure while she was in the middle of labor .
More and more, too, gender and cultural studies have provoked the question of whether such a thing as a women’s perspective exists, and whether it can be easily identified. The essays collected in this anthology reflect some of the new trends in historical writing regarding Puerto Rican women on the Island and in the United States. After pioneering breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s, it has been in the current decade that the field of Puerto Rican women’s history proper has come of age. The essays collected here show not only the ongoing interest in this field but also new areas of scholarly attention and “older” ones that are being revisited. A broad survey of topics on gender and the history of Puerto Rican women, both on the island and in the diaspora. Organized chronologically and covering the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, essays deal with issues of slavery, emancipation, wage work, women and politics, women’s suffrage, industrialization, migration, and Puerto Rican women in New York. Reviewing thirty years of historiographical material, the editors and contributors provide the first comprehensive study in English of gender and the history of Puerto Rican women.
The conflict concerning political status affected the women’s movement. Elizabeth Crespo pointed out women’s wisdom that they recognized education as a resource for survival in the macho culture.
We wanted to include work that exemplified new research being done on neglected topics, such as prostitution and urban slavery, and in already established ones, such as the women’s suffrage movement and the participation of women in the cigar-making industry. The lack of attention to certain areas and the geographical imbalance among the essays reflect more the nature of the field itself than the editors’ interests and professional networks.